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Over many centuries a fusion of, Pieris, P.E. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani. Some Tamils, especially those belonging to the Brahmin caste are vegetarian because of religious reasons. [159] Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Pattin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola III who succeeded Rajaraja III was a much better ruler who took bold steps to revive the Chola fortunes. Chola bronzes, especially the Nataraja sculptures of the Chola period, have become notable symbols of Hinduism. The Indian Tamils (or Hill Country Tamils) are descendants of bonded laborers who migrated from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka in the 19th century to work on tea plantations. It was accentuated by the resurgence of Pandyas under Maravarman Sundara Pandya (1216-1238 CE)[62] The waning Chola fortunes resulted in a three-way fight for the Tamil regions between the Pandyas, the Hoysalas and the Kakatiyas. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'. In D. Balasubramanian and N. Appaji Rao (eds. Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million people, which ranks 6th in India. Erwadi in Ramanathapuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam district[162] are the major pilgrimage centres for Muslims in Tamil Nadu. The English sailor Robert Knox described walking into the island's Tamil country in the publication An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, annotating some kingdoms within it on a map in 1681. [93], In the 9th and 10th centuries CE, Pandya and Chola incursions into Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century CE, after which Chola influence declined in Sri Lanka. Most traditional art is religious in some form and usually centres on Hinduism, although the religious element is often only a means to represent universal—and, occasionally, humanist—themes. The classical Tamil literature, referred to as Sangam literature, is attributed to the period between 300 BCE and 300 CE. & Manoharan, S. & Patil, S. (1997). [29], The Tamils are a Dravidian ethno-linguistic group and largely descend from ancient populations of the Indus Valley civilization with some further genetic contribution from the local hunter gatherers of peninsula India. p. 20, Hobbies – Volume 68, Issue 5, p. 45. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini (Tamil house-holder). The most popular Tamil Hindu deity is Murugan; he is known as the patron god of the Tamils and is also called "Tamil Kadavul" (Tamil God). to Anuradhapura between the 7th and 11th centuries CE in such large numbers that local chiefs and kings trying to establish legitimacy came to rely on them. [227] A famous Sri Lankan Tamil specialty is kottu roti, available in most Sri Lankan restaurants in the country and abroad. [133] Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and is recognised as a classical language by the government of India. [112] During the British colonial rule, many Tamils held higher positions than the Sinhalese in the government, because they were favored by the British for their qualification in English education. [86] Potsherds with early Tamil writing from the 2nd century BCE have been found in excavations in north of the Sri Lanka in Poonagari, bearing several inscriptions including a clan name – vela, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country. The Saivist tradition of Hinduism is significantly represented amongst Tamils, more so among Sri Lankan Tamils, although most of the Saivist places of religious significance are in northern India. In M.M. Other gods mentioned were Mayyon and Vaali who are major deities in Hinduism today. ", Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, "Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 1991: Social & Cultural Tables - C-7 : Mother Tongue - C-7 Part A (i): Distribution of the 18 Scheduled Languages", "Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 1991: Primary Census Abstract - Primary Census Abstract Total : Primary Census Abstract Total", "Census Data Online - 2001: Data on Language - Part A: Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages – India, States & Union Territories – 2001 Census", "Census Data Online - 2001: Data on Language - Statement 2: Distribution of population by Scheduled and Other Languages - India, States and Union Territories - 2001", "2011 Census Data: Data on Language and Mother Tongue - Part A : Distribution of the 22 scheduled languages - India/States/Union Territories - 2011 census", "2011 Census Data: Data on Language and Mother Tongue - Statement 2 : Distribution of population by Scheduled and other Languages India, States and Union Territories - 2011",, Lists of states of India by number of speakers of the languages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Five Lesser Epics of Tamil Literature, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 00:20. [82][83] Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archeologists to the 10th century BCE. [61], Under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas became dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of South India and Sri Lanka. Sastri, 'There were three levels of redistribution corresponding to the three categories of chieftains, namely: the Ventar, Velir and Kilar in descending order. [155] Atheist, rationalist, and humanist philosophies are also adhered by sizeable minorities.[156]. Of this total population, 1.01 crore, or 43.02 per cent, were recorded as migrants as per the definition of the Census authorities. Although most Tamil people are Hindus, many (especially those in the rural areas) practice what is considered to be Dravidian folk religion, venerating a plethora of village deities, while a sizeable number are Muslims and Christians. Traditionally, the Tamils sit on the ground and the food is served on a banana leaf. Tamil film industry has its headquarters in Chennai and is known as Kollywood; it is the second largest film industry in India after Bollywood. [103][104][105] The Hindu migration and assimilation continued until the 18th century.[103]. Several Tamil actresses such as Anuisa Ranjan Vyjayanthimala, Hema Malini, Rekha Ganesan, Sridevi, Meenakshi Sheshadri, and Vidya Balan have acted in Bollywood and dominated the cinema over the years. The Tamil kings and warriors followed an honour code similar to that of Japanese samurai and committed suicide to preserve honor. The Hindu festival Deepavali is celebrated with fanfare; other local Hindu festivals include Thaipusam, Panguni Uttiram, and Adiperukku. [183], The Tamilakam method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace. Although the Pallava records can be traced from the 2nd century CE, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. Deshpande and P.E. [125], A large emigration also began in the 1980s, as Sri Lankan Tamils sought to escape the ethnic conflict there. The Bhakti movement in Hinduism was founded at this time, and rose along with the growing influence of Jainism and Buddhism. [198] As a result, one often sees in stone sculptures flowing forms that are usually reserved for metal. [53] After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, the Tamil kingdoms were allied with the Satavahana Dynasty. Ethnic Insurgency and National Integration: A Study of Selected Ethnic Problems in South Asia (1997) p. 114. Production sites from antiquity have emerged, in places such as Anuradhapura, Tissamaharama and Samanalawewa, as well as imported artifacts of ancient iron and steel from Kodumanal. The Sangam legends also alluded to the antiquity of the Tamil people by claiming tens of thousands of years of continuous literary activity during three Sangams. The well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a T(ra)mira samghata (Confederacy of Tamil rulers) dated to 150 BC. The religion lost its importance in the 14th century when conditions changed for the benefit of Sinhala/Pali traditions.[148]. Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million, with an area that has grown from 176 square kilometers to 426 square kilometers after a 2011 expansion. Sivan, Pillaiyar, and the food is served on a banana leaf Tamil communities in other parts northeast! [ 159 ] Kan̲n̲agi, the Durava and the civil war led to the census. Asserted his independence 1997 ) Sinhalese has also accommodated Hindu immigrants from South India and Sri.... 195 ] the kuravanci is a subnational enclave situated within Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage tradition. 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