Their engines were identical - four boilers in two boiler rooms providing steam for four Parsons geared turbines, generating 80,000 shaft horsepower. However, this feature, which was also shared with the Mark I mounting, turned out to produce more mechanical headaches than were justified by its very marginal military utility. Ersatz Yorck, a replacement for the armored cruiser Yorck, was awarded to AG Vulcan in Hamburg on 10 April 1915. Hello viewers! The secondary armament consisted of four 4in QF Mark V guns and two 2pdr guns. This was primarily due to shifting wartime construction priorities; U-boats were deemed more important to Germany's war effort later in the war, and so work on other types of ships was slowed or halted outright. The Roon class was a pair of armored cruisers built for the German Imperial Navy after the turn of the 20th century. [a] All three were armed with 38 cm guns and had a displacement of 34,000 to 38,000 t (33,000 to 37,000 long tons). , Already in 1918, the design staff revived the grosskampfschiff concept with a series of design studies that ranged from smaller counterparts to the British Courageous class of "large light cruisers" to very large, 45,000 t (44,000 long tons) battlecruisers armed with 42 cm (16.5 in) guns. No work was done on Ersatz Scharnhorst before the ships were cancelled. The six 8 inch Mark VIII guns were mounted in three turrets. "GK" stood for "Grosse Kreuzer" (large cruiser), the German term for battlecruisers at the time. , The contracts for the ships had originally been allocated while still members of the Mackensen class. The rear conning tower was less well armored; its sides were only 200 mm (7.9 in) and the roof was covered with 50 mm (2 in) of armor plate. The then called Yorck class also included 38 cm guns and were the first German capital ships with only one funnel. This weight saving was mainly to be accomplished by reducing the armament to six 8-in guns (as opposed to the 8 guns on the County class), and also by using a new Mark II mounting for the guns. , As with all German battlecruisers that had been built, the Ersatz Yorck-class ships would have been equipped with four sets of Parsons steam turbines, each of which drove a 3-bladed screw that was 4.2 m (13 ft 9 in) in diameter. The guns had a maximum range of 20,250 m (66,440 ft). The other two ships, Ersatz Gneisenau, and Ersatz Scharnhorst, were considered to be replacements for the armored cruisers Gneisenau and Scharnhorst, both of which had been sunk at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, also in 1914. The three ships had originally been ordered as additions to the Mackensen class, but developments abroad, particularly the British Renown-class battlecruisers, led to the navy re-designing the ships. , The three vessels of the Ersatz Yorck class were to have been members of the Mackensen class, and initial funding for the ships was allocated on 21 February 1915. This was raked in York to clear the flue gasses from the bridge, but was straight in Exeter owing to an altered bridge design and more extensive trunking. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered but not completed for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in 1916. , The power plant was rated 90,000 shaft horsepower (67,000 kW; 91,000 PS) and 295 revolutions per minute, the same as the preceding Mackensen-class ships. Over the magazine spaces, the belt thickened to 4in, and the armour extended above the belt, with a 2.5-in magazine crown The turrets had 2in armour to the face and crown, 1.5in on sides and rear, and the barbettes on which the turrets sat had 1in armour. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered but not completed for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in 1916. When Germany learned of the construction of new British battlecruisers with 38,1 guns in 1916 (Renown and Repulse), the three last ships of the Mackensen class were modified to match the new British designs. Displacement rose about 2,500 t (2,500 long tons) compared to the Mackensen class, with about 1,000 t (980 long tons) of that increase being a result of the heavier 38 cm guns. Exeter differed in appearance from York because of late changes in her design. The design speed was 32.5 knots (60.2 km/h), one knot faster than the County class.. A crane for recovery was located to starboard and one aircraft could be carried, initially a Fairey Seafox and later, in Exeter, a Supermarine Walrus. The name derived from the fact that the lead ship was intended as a replacement (German: ersatz) for the armored cruiser Yorck, lost to mines in 1914, and it had been ordered under the provisional Ersatz Yorck. The RMA initially believed the war would be over quickly, but by early 1915, it had become clear that it would not be the case. Ersatz Yorck and Ersatz Gneisenau were intended to use Föttinger fluid transmission for their turbines, while Ersatz Scharnhorst's turbines retained direct coupled geared transmissions. The second ship of the Roon class, Yorck was built by a private firm instead of a government dockyard like the eponymous ship, and as a result Yorck was commissioned just two months after this photo, whereas Roon was not done until April 1906. 14 new cruisers. Most famously, Exeter took part in the Battle of the River Plate against the German raider Graf Spee, and was badly damaged, though later repaired and extensively modernized. This was because it had been intended to fit a catapult and floatplane to the roof of the turret, which needed clearance distance and required a tall bridge to provide forward view. British heavy cruiser HMS York (C90) at Vancouver on August 10th, 1938.. This was similar to the County class, with the exception that the Yorks carried two fewer torpedo tubes, because of the narrower beam. SMS Ersatz Yorck class battlecruisers line drawing (1917 project). These included a significant reduction in smoke interference with the spotting tops and additional room to move the tripod mast further aft, which reduced the risk of the mast falling on the conning tower in the event of battle damage and increased the field of view from the spotting top. The two cruisers turn tail and run, screaming for help.  The Mark II mounting was capable of firing at up to 80 degrees elevation for anti-aircraft barrage fire. As a result of the magazine changes, and to keep the funnels distant from the bridge, only two funnels were required; the forward boiler room uptakes trunked up into a large fore-funnel. Mainz — German premium Tier VIII cruiser. From 1925 the Royal Navy planned a "Class B" cruiser (as against the 10,000-ton cruisers of Class A, such as the Counties. If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it. , The ships were never completed, primarily because by 1917, the shipbuilding industry had largely been diverted to support the U-boat Campaign, which had become the priority of the Navy. Nevertheless, the work that had gone into the Ersatz Yorck design was not a wasted effort; when the design staff began work on the Scharnhorst-class battleships in the 1930s, they used the plans for Ersatz Yorck as a starting point. Intended ammunition stowage for the Ersatz Yorck class was 720 shells or 90 rounds per gun; these were 750-kilogram (1,650 lb) shells that were light for guns of their caliber. Admiral Eduard von Capelle replaced Grossadmiral (Grand Admiral) Alfred von Tirpitz as the State Secretary of the RMA on 16 March 1916, which led to questions in the RMA over the three ships. , The Ersatz Yorck-class battlecruisers were to be armed with a main battery of eight 38 cm (15 in) SK L/45 guns in four Drh LC/1913 twin-gun turrets;[b] this was identical to the main armament carried by the Bayern-class battleships. Sunk in surface action, 1st of March 1942. The name derived from the fact that the lead ship was intended as a replacement (German: ersatz) for the armored cruiser Yorck lost to mines in 1914. , See also: List of ships of the Imperial German Navy. As a result, the hull frames that had been assembled were subsequently scrapped on the slipway. This additional space provided an increased total of 4,000 t (3,900 long tons) of coal and 2,000 t (2,000 long tons) of oil. She augmented the forces assigned to the I Scouting Group , which primarily consisted of the battlecruisers Seydlitz , Moltke , and Von der Tann and the large armored cruiser … They were essentially a reduced version of the preceding County class, scaled down to enable more cruisers to be built from the limited defence budgets of the late 1920s. Crew 633. These guns fired 9 kg (20 lb) shells, and had an effective ceiling of 9,150 m (30,020 ft) at 70 degrees. BTW IIRC both the K-class and the Hipper class of cruisers had slopes on their armour decks. Built at Palmers Shipbuilding & Iron Company, Jarrow, HMS York was laid don on 16 May 1927, launched 17 Feb 1928 and completed on 6 June 1930; She became flagship of the 2nd Cruiser Squadron until 1934 under captain Richard Bevan and the 8th Cruiser Squadron, North America and West Indies Station. Two triple 21-in torpedo tubes were carried. This design called for a ship armed with eight 38 cm guns on a displacement of 36,500 t (35,900 long tons) with a top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph). Warning: Display title "York class cruiser" overrides earlier display title "York-class cruiser". The latter were a step ahead with 7,500 tons fully loaded, 155 meters long and armed with 8 x 150 mm guns. This marked a significant increase over the Mackensen design, which displaced 31,000 t (31,000 long tons) as designed; the bulk of the displacement growth was accounted by the heavier main battery, larger, more powerful engines, and additional boilers that provided a speed increase of 1.5 to 2 knots (2.8 to 3.7 km/h; 1.7 to 2.3 mph) over the Mackensens. By this time, much of the construction resources of the German Navy had been redirected to the U-boat fleet, so the new ships could not be completed before 1920; as a result, the Mackensens would be inferior to the latest American and British designs. The guns had to be returned to 2.5 degrees to reload them. She combined the rapid-fire battery of light cruisers with the survivability of heavy ones. , The Ersatz Yorck-class ships were an enlargement of the previous Mackensen-class ships. In 1935 she sailed to the Mediterranean, patrolling during the second Italo-Abyssinian War, and in 1939 she was back on the American station.  To shorten the belt length, the amidship magazine found on the Counties was removed (reduced armament required less magazine space anyway). The Reichsmarineamt (RMA – Imperial Naval Office) decided that to meet the requirements set in the 1912 law, the Navy should construct one battleship and one battlecruiser every year between 1913 and 1917, with an additional unit of both types in 1913 and 1916. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered but not completed for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in 1916. Each turret was fitted with a stereo rangefinder. Scuttled 22nd May 1941, following sustained air & sea attacks. Work on the first ship had already begun by the … The York-class heavy cruiser was the second class of 8-inch (203.2 mm)–gunned heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy under the terms of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty. Scheer objected to the decrease in speed, and for the time being, Hebbinghaus's and Capelle's proposals came to nothing. Comments: Virtual repeats of the Prinz Adalbert class with slight increase in speed and slightly modified armour layout. This included the ammunition magazines and the machinery spaces. This armour scheme was generally equivalent to that of the County class, though thicker over the machinery spaces. Owing to her well-balanced characteristics, the ship surpassed the first generation cruisers of her time, that were subject to the Washington Naval Treaty, in terms of protection, and light cruisers i The Yorck is 40 miles North of the Lutzow, closer to the Faeroes, when the radar room pick up a reading almost 20 miles away, and a burst of radio chatter from the same direction indicates the Yorck has found what it was looking for, the British Cruiser patrolling the gap. They were essentially a reduced version of the preceding County class, scaled down to enable more cruisers to be built from the limited defence budgets of the late 1920s. The guns could engage targets out to 13,500 m (44,300 ft), and after improvements in 1915, their range was extended to 16,800 m (55,100 ft). The transmitting station was also covered by 1in armour. These guns were intended for defense against torpedo boats, and were supplied with a total of 2,240 shells. The real name isn't known, the ship was to succeed to the armoured cruiser SMS Yorck of 1904, sunk 1914. The ships were also to be equipped with eight 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/45 flak guns in single pedestal mounts. , The economies in size allowed for a 50-foot (15 m) reduction in length and 9 feet (3 m) in beam over the Counties. Today I bring you another upgrade ship. British naval ship classes of the Second World War, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, 0.5 inch Mk.III Vickers (12.7 mm, L/50) machine guns, Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/York-class_cruiser?oldid=2623255, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, 8,250 tons standard / 10,350 tons full load, Eight Admiralty 3-drum water-tube boilers, 1,900 tons oil fuel; 10,000 nmi (20,000 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h), 8,390 tons standard / 10,410 tons full load, Rammed and crippled by two Italian explosive motor boats at. These ships provided the transition from the class of battleship to the big cruiser. Fighting it out with a German battleship is not part of their orders. York eventually received a rotating catapult amidships behind the funnels, and Exeter had a fixed pair in the same location, firing forwards and angled out from the centreline. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered for the Imperial German Navy in April 1915. Their slightly greater size reduced their speed somewhat, from 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) in the Mackensen-class ships to 27.3 knots (50.6 km/h; 31.4 mph) for the new vessels. The turbines were supplied with steam by 24 coal-fired Schulz-Thornycroft single-ended boilers and 8 oil-fired Schulz-Thornycroft double-ended boilers. The shell allotment was divided between armor piercing and high explosive versions, with 60 of the former and 30 of the latter. The guns were placed in MPL C/13 mountings, which allowed depression to −10 degrees and elevation to 70 degrees. : SMS Yorck is part of the Armored cruisers of Germany series, a good topic.This is identified as among the best series of articles produced by the Wikipedia community. Since the ships' propulsion systems had already been ordered, they were kept essentially identical to the original Mackensen design, although internal rearrangements allowed the boilers to be trunked into one large funnel rather than the two of the Mackensens, which conferred several advantages. The big cruiser SMS Yorck belonged to the Roon class, which consisted of only two ships and were built shortly after the turn of the century. Laid down 16th May 1927, launched 17th February 1928, completed 6th June 1930. Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted the next group of battlecruisers to be equipped with 38-centimeter (15 in) guns instead of the 35 cm (14 in) pieces carried by the Mackensens. The Ersatz Yorcks were intended to mount a pair of rudders side by side for steering. Although it … Work on the first ship had already begun by the time the navy decided to re-design the ships, so the design staff was constrained by the need to use the material already assembled. Just one question: Why reintroduce the slopes on Ersatz Yorck and S&G and Bismarck? In Imperial German Navy gun nomenclature, "SK" (, The figures listed here are those for the, List of ships of the Imperial German Navy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ersatz_Yorck-class_battlecruiser&oldid=1000199321, Battlecruisers of the Imperial German Navy, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 02:22. The design studies ultimately demonstrated that the type of ship that Scheer desired was impractical owing to the size limitations imposed by the German Navy's infrastructure, specifically the existing dry docks and the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. Ersatz Yorck class was the successor of Mackensen class. The main battery gun turrets were also heavily armored: the turret sides were 270 mm (11 in) thick and the roofs were 110 mm (4.3 in). York had a tall "platform" style bridge as seen in the Counties, which was somewhat distant from 'B' turret. Hebbinghaus nevertheless allowed that the design staff had some leeway in warship development that could be used to get around the legal restrictions. After 1917, work on Ersatz Yorck only took place in order to occupy dockyard workers who could not be employed on U-boat construction. The three ships had originally been ordered as additions to the Mackensen class, but developments abroad, particularly the British Renown-class battlecruisers, led to the navy re-designing the ships. The belt tapered down to 30 mm (1.2 in) at the bow, though the stern was not protected by armor at all. Both ships served in vigorously in the first few years of World War II. The hulls were divided into eighteen watertight compartments. Indeed, Ersatz Yorck had already been laid down in July. The ships were easily distinguished from their predecessors by the addition of a fourth funnel. New Yorck captains will immediately notice the change in the main battery. By that time, Ersatz Friedrich Carl had been laid down the previous November, and was too far along to be converted, leaving the last three Mackensens as the only members available to be rearmed. , The Ersatz Yorck-class ships were protected with Krupp cemented steel armor, as was the standard for German warships of the period. The main armored deck ranged in thickness from 30 mm in less important areas, to 80 mm (3.1 in) in the sections that covered the more critical areas of the ship. On 19 April, the Construction Department submitted several design proposals, including GK1, GK2, and GK3. The Construction Department accordingly rushed to redesign the vessels to equip them with 38 cm guns, but the work was hampered by the fact that the navy had already ordered the machinery and armor plate for the ships, and work on the materials had already begun. The belt was reduced in less critical areas, to 120 mm (4.7 in) forward and 100 mm (3.9 in) aft. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered but not completed for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in 1916. The 15 cm guns had 150 mm worth of armor plating in the casemates; the guns themselves had 70 mm (2.8 in) shields to protect their crews from shell splinters. The York class was the second and final class of 8-inch (203 mm)–gunned heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy under the terms of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty. At a range of 20,000 m (66,000 ft), the armor-piercing shells could penetrate up to 336 mm (13.2 in) of steel plate. An unidentified Roon-class cruiser On 3 November, Yorck participated in the first offensive operation of the war conducted by the German fleet. The remaining ships were delayed due to budget cuts, and then following the London Naval Treaty of 1930 the Royal Navy decided its cruiser needs were best met by building a greater number of yet smaller cruisers with 6–in guns.. Ultimately, both ships were lost in action by early 1942. SMS Yorck has been listed as one of the Warfare good articles under the good article criteria.If you can improve it further, please do so. Some material for Ersatz Gneisenau had been constructed, including the ship's diesel generators, which were subsequently installed in the first four Type U 151 U-boats U-151, U-152, U-153, and U-154. You see, in most games, people often did not like the York Class when they playing in skirmish mode. , During the re-design process, Scheer requested that the new ships have increased armament, armor, and speed compared to the first four Mackensens, but owing to the constraints imposed, only the armament could be increased, and the deck armor and speed had to be reduced slightly to keep displacement in check. The Imperial German Navy (Hochseeflotte), Yorck Information, Battlecruisers, Yorck, Schlachtkreuzer, Yorck class , In a meeting on 12 August, Hebbinghaus stated that he wanted to build ships that were similar to traditional battleship designs, preferring survivability to offensive power; he argued that the Mackensens should be cancelled in favor of this new type, since they had been designed before the navy had any war experience on which to base them. The Yorck heads straight for the two cruisers, firing as it goes. As the preceding County class cruisers had virtually no armour, protection was added into the design and included a 3-inch-thick (76 mm), 8-foot-deep (2 m) main belt and an armoured lower deck joining at its top edge. The Royal Navy had a need for smaller cruisers than the County class, the largest design possible under the Washington limits, in order that more could be built under the strict defence economies of 1920s Britain. A 45 mm (1.8 in) torpedo bulkhead ran the length of the hull, several meters behind the main belt. Another meeting on 24 August concluded that all seven ships of the Mackensen class would be built as designed, the General Navy Department noting that they would "still undoubtedly represent a very valuable addition to the fleet in 1919. Capelle stated that the last three Mackensens—Ersatz Yorck, Ersatz Scharnhorst, and Ersatz Gneisenau—and Ersatz Friedrich Carl if work had not proceeded too far along, should be reordered as a completely new design, GK6, which he submitted. The ship was broken up on the slipway and machinery that had been assembled for Ersatz Gneisenau was installed in the first four Type U 151 U-boats. The Yorck is a paper ship that was never built. The York class was the second and final class of 8-inch (203 mm)–gunned heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy under the terms of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty. , The ships' secondary battery was to have consisted of twelve 15 cm (5.9 in) SK L/45 quick-firing guns mounted in armored casemates along the central superstructure. The guns had a rate of fire of around one shell every 38 seconds. Ersatz Gneisenau, a replacement for the armored cruiser Gneisenau, was awarded to Germaniawerft in Kiel, and Blohm & Voss in Hamburg received the contract for Ersatz Scharnhorst, a replacement for the armored cruiser Scharnhorst. However, the areas of the hull between the torpedo bulkhead and the outer wall of the ship were also used for fuel storage. The torpedoes were the H8 type, which were 9 m (30 ft) long and carried a 210 kg (463 lb) hexanite warhead. World War 1 Service: Roon Select Page. The project of a cruiser with 150 mm guns (cruiser K), which was developed in the mid-1930s on the basis of the Admiral Hipper-class ships, shortly after the construction of the latter began. They were initially intended to favor high speed for reconnaissance over the heavier gun armament of the Cöln class, though by the final iterations, they were as powerful as the earlier class. These turrets originally allowed for depression of the guns to −8 degrees and elevation to 16 degrees, though Bayern had hers modified to allow 20 degrees of elevation, a common practice for German naval weapons during the latter part of the war. Otherwise the new ships were to share all the main features of the preceding class. York used the Mark II mounting, which was intended to be 20 tons lighter than the Mark I mounting used on the earlier County class ships; however, in fact it turned out to be heavier. The armor layout was identical to the preceding Mackensen class, which was itself very similar to the armor scheme on the preceding Derfflinger-class ships. , Vizeadmiral (Vice Admiral) Reinhard Scheer, the commander of the High Seas Fleet, expressed his preference for GK2, the largest and fastest of the versions (with a top speed of 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h; 33.9 mph)), during a meeting on 29 April. In the sea state running, the Yorck was better able to make speed than the cruisers. She was designed in the interwar period for the Reichsmarine (which later became the Kriegsmarine) as one of the possible heavy cruiser designs that would later become the Deutschland Class Cruisers. The Ersatz Yorck class was a group of three battlecruisers ordered but not completed for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in 1916. The ships were to have electrical power provided by diesel generators. The three ships had originally been ordered as additions to the Mackensen class, but developments abroad, particularly the British Renown-class battlecruisers, led to the navy re-designing the ships. A total of 2,240 shells, 155 meters long and armed with 8 x mm. Could be used to get around the legal restrictions from the class of cruisers had slopes on their armour.! Came to nothing 4 ] the ships ' speed from falling too much armour! 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